Breathing Gas Processing: Overview

(Update 11.03.2023: structure renewed) This article is intended to define the concept for ensuring the appropriate habitat atmosphere to be used in the Calamar Park modules.

It is divided into the following sections:

  • Guide Value for Electricity Costs
  • Oxygen
  • Oxygen Demand of a Human Being
  • Oxygen Availability
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Normoxic Gas Mixtures (Normox)
  • Air Supply from the Surface
  • Carbon Dioxide Scrubbing by Soda Lime
  • Carbon Dioxide Scrubbing by Monoethanolamine (MEA)
  • Carbon Dioxide Scrubbing by Sea Water
  • Photosynthesis
  • Water-Air Membrane
  • Oxygen by Electrolysis

Our extensive analysis and proposals are part of the design manual.

Undersea Station: Biocoil

Lloyd Godson and the Biocoil(Updated 04 April, 2017) In our undersea station one of the ways to absorb Carbon dioxide from the air and to produce oxygen instead might be beside classic scrubbers the Biocoil reactor that was first introduced by a science class of Cascade High School in the US. It looks like a quiet simple system based on Chlorella algae and it was used in Lloyd Godson’s ‘BioSub’ project in 2007.

The Biocoil and BioSUB Projects on ABC’s Behind The News (BTN):

Continue reading “Undersea Station: Biocoil”

Plants Clean Air and Water for Indoor Environments

Osmunda Regalis, Christian Fischer [CC BY-SA 3.0 (],Back in the late ‘80s, NASA was looking for ways to detoxify the air in its space stations. So it conducted a study to determine the most effective plants for filtering the air of toxic agents and converting carbon dioxide to oxygen.See more on GOOD Magazine. Or the corresponding pdf’s:

Image: Osmunda Regalis, taken from Wikimedia, Christian Fischer [CC BY-SA 3.0 (],

CO2 Scrubber

Amron International, CO2 ScrubberLonger stays in an underwater station require systems to filter out Carbon Dioxide (CO2) from the air that is exhaled by the aquanauts. These CO2 scrubbers generally consist of a fan that pulls air through a canister filled with Carbon Dioxide (CO2) adsorbent, such as Sodasorb or Sodalime. To get a rough idea about CO2 scrubbers and their prices visit the webpage of AMRON International.